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This book explores the role of photographs in newspapers and online news, analyzing how meanings are made in images and exploring text-image relations, illustrated with authentic news stories from both print and online news outlets.
A unique guide to the application and theory of photothermal spectroscopy.<br> <br> This book debunks the myth that photothermal spectroscopy is too complicated for practical application to chemical analysis, and demonstrates the advantages this technique has over conventional spectroscopy in facilitating extremely sensitive measurements of optical absorption in homogeneous media. The book covers the subject from the ground up, lists all practical considerations needed to obtain accurate results, and provides a working knowledge of the various methods in use--including photo acoustics and photopyroelectric techniques.<br> <br> Bringing together a wealth of information that has been scattered throughout the professional literature, Photothermal Spectroscopy Methods for Chemical Analysis covers methods and information that should be known to every analytical chemist, including: <br> * Descriptions of photothermal spectroscopy using a consistent mathematical language <br> * Helpful examples from the literature of analytical applications and current research <br> * Illustrations of all important points, consistent equations, and numerous original figures <br> * A discussion of laser technology and how it is used to obtain accurate results from extremely small samples of a few molecules <br> * Everything spectroscopists need to know to construct their own apparatus and use it to conduct successful experiments <br> * Tips on how to interpret experimental results effectively when using nonlinear processes and in many other situations in photothermal spectroscopy <br> * Considerations for further study of heterogeneous sample analysis<br> * Unified nomenclature of the patchwork of terms used by researchers in analytical and physical chemistry, physics, and optical engineering <br> * Equations that are derived with the aid of a symbolic language processor to ensure correct results<br> <br> <br> Photothermal spectroscopy has seen major advances since the advent of laser technology twenty-five years ago. It is now possible, using a laser's coherent and powerful output, to obtain extremely sensitive measurements of optical absorption that exceed those of mass spectroscopy by two or three times, and produce accurate results from only a few molecules.<br> <br> Focusing on samples in homogeneous media, this book provides a unique guide--incorporating theory and application--to all available photothermal spectroscopy techniques for chemical and material analysis. It uses a systematic approach in its comprehensive treatment of the theory, and covers all the necessary background material, from laser optics to fluid dynamics.<br> <br> This accessible text describes the various processes used to detect thermal perturbation of a sample, ranging from optical excitation to nonlinear processes, and covers all optical principles necessary to understand photothermal spectroscopy. When dealing with hydrodynamic equations that govern energy transfer in the sample matrix, it provides an original impulse-response approach. In addition, the book explains how to construct the apparatus one needs to conduct successful photothermal experiments, since commercial equipment is not available as in conventional spectrophotometry.<br> <br> Throughout, this book draws on information from a wide range of fields, including analytical spectroscopy, measurement physics, physical optics, and chemical dynamics. Providing clear explanations at every turn, the author demonstrates a complete understanding of the theory and applications as a firm basis for the correct interpretation of experimental results.<br> <br> For analytical chemists, as well as for students at the graduate level, Photothermal Spectroscopy Methods for Chemical Analysis is an unmatched resource that develops a consistent mathematical basis for signal description, consolidates previous theories, and provides invaluable insight into laser technology.
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy
This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology andÂ its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics.
Written for the graduate level student in physical sciences; Industrial and academic researchers in photonics, graduate students in the area; College lecturers, educators, policymakers, consultants, Scientific and technical libraries, government laboratories, NIH.
This monograph presents theoretical and experimental studies of flows of elastic liquids. Falling into this category are particularly the melts and concentrated solutions of such flexible-chain polymers as polyethylene, polyisobutylene and polypropylene, all of which are widely used in polymer processing. These polydisperse polymers vary greatly, from batch to batch, in their mechanical properties and 20% variation in a property is believed to be good enough. l 7 All recent books - devoted to the rheology of polymers do not answer the question of which constitutive equations should be used for solving the fluid mechanic problems of polymer processing in the usual case of an appreciable nonlinear region of deformation where nonlinear effects of shear and extensional elasticity are very important. Viscoelastic constitut- ive equations cited commonly (see, e.g. Refs 5 and 6) do not describe simultaneously even the simplest cases of deformations, viz. simple shear and uniaxial extension. Moreover, some of them are internally inconsist- ent and sometimes display highly unstable behaviour in simple flows without any fundamental reasons. Even more respected molecular ap- free from these defects.
The breadth of scientific and technological interests in the general topic of photochemistry is truly enormous and includes, for example, such diverse areas as microelectronics, atmospheric chemistry, organic synthesis, non-conventional photoimaging, photosynthesis, solar energy conversion, polymer technologies, and spectroscopy. This Specialist Periodical Report on Photochemistry aims to provide an annual review of photo-induced processes that have relevance to the above wide-ranging academic and commercial disciplines, and interests in chemistry, physics, biology and technology. In order to provide easy access to this vast and varied literature, each volume of Photochemistry comprises sections concerned with photophysical processes in condensed phases, organic aspects which are sub-divided by chromophore type, polymer photochemistry, and photochemical aspects of solar energy conversion. Volume 34 covers literature published from July 2001 to June 2002. Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage in major areas of chemical research. Compiled by teams of leading authorities in the relevant subject areas, the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, with regular, in-depth accounts of progress in particular fields of chemistry. Subject coverage within different volumes of a given title is similar and publication is on an annual or biennial basis.
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