Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The eye is a compound of individual lenses with their own photoreceptor arrays. The visual system of insects allows them to fly with a limited intelligence and brain processing power. A CMOS image sensor replicating the perception of vision in insects is discussed and designed in this book for industrial (machine vision) and medical applications.
The CMOS metal layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer able to sense polarization information. This polarization information is shown to be useful in applications like real time material classification and autonomous agent navigation. Further the sensor is equipped with in pixel analog and digital memories which allow variation of the dynamic range and in-pixel binarization in real time. The binary output of the pixel tries to replicate the flickering effect of the insect's eye to detect smallest possible motion based on the change in state. An inbuilt counter counts the changes in states for each row to estimate the direction of the motion. The chip consists of an array of 128x128 pixels, it occupies an area of 5 x 4 mm2 and it has been designed and fabricated in an 180nm CMOS CIS process from UMC.
The sampling lattice used to digitize continuous image data is a signi?cant determinant of the quality of the resulting digital image, and therefore, of the e?cacy of its processing. The nature of sampling lattices is intimately tied to the tessellations of the underlying continuous image plane. To allow uniform sampling of arbitrary size images, the lattice needs to correspond to a regular - spatially repeatable - tessellation. Although drawings and paintings from many ancient civilisations made ample use of regular triangular, square and hexagonal tessellations, and Euler later proved that these three are indeed the only three regular planar tessellations possible, sampling along only the square lattice has found use in forming digital images. The reasons for these are varied, including extensibility to higher dimensions, but the literature on the rami?cations of this commitment to the square lattice for the dominant case of planar data is relatively limited. There seems to be neither a book nor a survey paper on the subject of alternatives. This book on hexagonal image processing is therefore quite appropriate. Lee Middleton and Jayanthi Sivaswamy well motivate the need for a c- certedstudyofhexagonallatticeandimageprocessingintermsoftheirknown uses in biological systems, as well as computational and other theoretical and practicaladvantagesthataccruefromthisapproach. Theypresentthestateof the art of hexagonal image processing and a comparative study of processing images sampled using hexagonal and square grids.
For junior/graduate-level courses in Remote Sensing in Geography, Geology, Forestry, and Biology.
Introductory Digital Image Processing: A Remote Sensing Perspectivefocuses on digital image processing of aircraft- and satellite-derived, remotely sensed data for Earth resource management applications. Extensively illustrated, it explains how to extract biophysical information from remote sensor data for almost all multidisciplinary land-based environmental projects. Part of the Pearson Series Geographic Information Science.
Now in full color, the Fourth Edition provides up-to-date information on analytical methods used to analyze digital remote sensing data. Each chapter contains a substantive reference list that can be used by students and scientists as a starting place for their digital image processing project or research. A new appendix provides sources of imagery and other geospatial information.
This new, fully-revised edition covers all the major topics of digital signal processing (DSP) design and analysis in a single, all-inclusive volume, interweaving theory with real-world examples and design trade-offs. Building on the success of the original, this edition includes new material on random signal processing, a new chapter on spectral estimation, greatly expanded coverage of filter banks and wavelets, and new material on the solution of difference equations. Additional steps in mathematical derivations make them easier to follow, and an important new feature is the do-it-yourself section at the end of each chapter, where readers get hands-on experience of solving practical signal processing problems in a range of MATLAB experiments. With 120 worked examples, 20 case studies, and almost 400 homework exercises, the book is essential reading for anyone taking DSP courses. Its unique blend of theory and real-world practical examples also makes it an ideal reference for practitioners.
This collection of literature attempts to compile many of the classic, timeless works that have stood the test of time and offer them at a reduced, affordable price, in an attractive volume so that everyone can enjoy them.
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